Monday, March 9, 2015

List of Botanical Garden in Pakistan

A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research and education. This distinguishes them from parks and pleasure gardens where plants, usually with showy flowers, are grown for public amenity only. Botanical gardens that specialize in trees are sometimes referred to as arboretums. They are occasionally associated with universities, zoos.
Research Botanical Gardens

  • Forman Christian College Botanic Garden, Lahore
  • Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore
  • Botanical Collections of Kashyap's Museum at GCU, Lahore
  • Karachi University Botanic Garden, Karachi
  • Pakistan Forest Institute Botanical Garden, Peshawar
  • National Herbarium, Islamabad
  • Shah Abdul Latif Herbarium and Botanical Garden of Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
  • Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute Botanical Garden, Jhang
  • GC University Lahore Botanic Garden, Lahore
  • University of Peshawar Botanic Garden (UPBG),Peshawar
  • Rani Bagh Arboretum, Hyderabad
  • Sukh Chayn Gardens, Lahore
  • Botanic Garden University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • Botanic Garden at Sindh University, Jamshoro
  • Botanic Garden of Government College for Women, Lahore
  • Botanic Garden of Qarshi Industries, Hattar
  • Danishmandan Botanic Garden Lahore
  • Liaqat Ali Botanic Garden, Peshawar
  • Public Botanical Gardens
  • Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore
  • Rani Bagh Arboretum, Hyderabad
  • Sukh Chayn Gardens, Lahore
  • Botanic Garden of Islamia University, Bahawalpur
  • Botanic Garden of Government College , Faisalabad

Public Botanical Gardens

  • Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore
  • Rani Bagh Arboretum, Hyderabad
  • Sukh Chayn Gardens, Lahore

Saturday, February 28, 2015

Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari palm)

Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari palm) is the sole species in the genus Nannorrhops in the palm family Arecaceae. It is native to southwestern Asia, from the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula east through Iran and Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwestern India, growing at altitudes of up to 1600 m.

There are many local names of this plant . Famous local names are Mazri and  Peesh. It is a   dwarf palm.. Under the favorable conditions it can grow up to four meters.

 It is gregarious, usually small tufted palm, from a much branched underground rhizome. It is self grooming, slow growing extremely flexible plant It is a shrub-like clumping palm, with several stems growing from a single base. The strips of tree have long broad flakes with peculiar net like appearance.The stems grow slowly and often tightly together, reaching 1–2 m or more tall. The leaves are long, smooth (unspined) petiole terminating in a rounded fan of 20–30 leaflets, 30–120 cm long, with a distinct glaucous blue-green to grey-green colour..

The flowers are borne in tall, open clusters up to 3 m long at the top of the stems; it is usually dioecious with male and female flowers on separate plants. The fruit is a brown drupe. The individual stems are monocarpic, dying back to the ground after flowering, with the plant continuing growth from basal sprouts.

t is a gregarious, tufted, and shrubby palm, growing naturally in dry tropical regions of Pakistan. It is one of the hardier palms, tolerating winter frosts down to about −12 °C (10 °F) (possibly even −20 °C or −4 °F), though it requires very hot summers for good growth. Mazri is found in the wild while in patches, it is also cultivatedIt is found in various area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. 

Mazri palm is mostly found on either side of Suleiman Range with the height ranging from 600-1100 m in sandy soil depressions  It is found in various area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and it is distributed in the areas of Orakzia Agency, North and South Waziristan, Kurram, Kohat, Hangu, District Karak, Jhandey (Kalpani, District Mardan), Swat, Totakan, Hazarnao, Anbar, Bannu, D I Khan, etc

Balochistan has the potential for mazri  it is distributed in Baluchistan, in some parts of Makran, Khuzdar & Lasbela, Musakhel, Northern Sibi (Quat-Mundahi Valley), Harnai, Loralai, Sharag, Abdul Khail , Zhob, Sherani and adjacent tribal belt of Suliman Range.

In Punjab, it is distributed in Bhakar, Saraie Alamgir, Qasoor, Gujrat, Kot Addu and Potohar areas. 

The plant of mazri is evergreen and can be harvested anytime of the year.There is no specific mazri harvesting date. Normally it is harvest  in the months of April to August.  

It is also use n medicine. Fruit is used as tonic. The powder of young leaves is given in diarrhea and dysentery . 

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Moths of Pakistan

Moths are a group of insects related to the butterflies and belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Most lepidopterans are moths and there are thought to be approximately 160,000 species of moth.

The modern English word "moth" comes from Old English "moððe".

Moth larvae, or caterpillars, make cocoons from which they emerge as fully grown moths with wings. Some moth caterpillars dig holes in the ground, where they live until they are ready to turn into adult moths.

Moths, and particularly their caterpillars, are a major agricultural pest in many parts of the world.

Some moths are farmed. The most notable of these is the silkworm

Following is list Moths of Pakistan 

  • Acantholipes circumdata
Acantholipes circumdata is a species of moth in the Erebidae family. The species is found from India and Pakistan through Afghanistan and Iran to the Arabian Peninsula and Eastern Africa.
  • Agdistis tamaricis
The Tamarisk Plume (Agdistis tamaricis) is a moth of the Pterophoridae family. In the Palaearctic ecozone, The wingspan is 18–27 mm, Adults are on wing from March to October in multiple generations.
  • Aglossa aglossalis
Aglossa aglossalis is a species of snout moths in the genus Aglossa. It is known from Pakistan, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Iraq, Iran, India,  Sudan and the United Arab Emirates
  • Anumeta spilota
Anumeta spilota is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found from the western parts of the Sahara to the Sinai, Israel, central Asia, Pakistan and India.
  • Asota ficus
Asota ficus is a moth in the family Noctuidae. It is found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and northern Vietnam..The wingspan is about 67 mm.
  • Coleophora alcyonipennella
The Clover Case-bearer or Small Clover Case-bearer (Coleophora alcyonipennella) is a moth of the Coleophoridae family. It is native to Europe, the eastern Palearctic ecozone, Pakistan, the Near East and North AfricaIt is an introduced species in New Zealand and Australia, where it is now found from southern Queensland to Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania.

The wingspan is 12–14 mm. Adults are on wing in May and June and again in late July and August in two generations in western Europe. Adults feed on the nectar of clover flowers.

The larvae feed on Trifolium repens and Trifolium fragiferum. They feed inside a case formed from a floret. Larvae have also been recorded on Medicago species.
  • Coleophora echyropis
Coleophora echyropis is a moth of the Coleophoridae family. It is found in Kashmir,  Pakistan. 

The wingspan is about 14 mm. The antennae are white ringed fuscous and the palpi are white. The forewings are light greyish-ochreous. There is a broad white streak with two or three black specks running along the costa. The apical third of the wing is suffusedly mixed white, with a very few black specks between the veins. There is also a slender whitish-grey streak in the posterior half of the cell, with a few black scales and a greyish line with some black scales along the fold. The hindwings are grey.
  • Euxoa cashmirensis
Euxoa cashmirensis is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found in Kashmir.of Pakistan
  • Gypsochares catharotes
Gypsochares catharotes is a moth of the Pterophoridae family that is known from  Pakistan, South Africa and India 

The wingspan is 13–14 millimetres (0.51–0.55 in).
  • Heliothis maritima
The Shoulder-striped Clover (Heliothis maritima) is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found in most of Europe, Ukraine, southern Russia and southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Turkey, central Asia, China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, northern India, Pakistan, the Russian Far East (Primorye, southern Khabarovsk, the Amur region, southern Sakhalin and the southern Kuriles).

The wingspan is 30–36 mm. Adults are on wing from June to July in western Europe.
  • Paradrina clavipalpis
The pale mottled willow (Paradrina clavipalpis) is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in the Palearctic ecozone (Europe, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Kuwait, Russia, Central Asia, Mongolia, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwest India). It is an introduced species in North America

The wingspan is 26–35 mm. The length of the forewings is 12–15 mm.Forewing pale to dark grey with darker dusting and sometimes tinged with ochreous; the terminal area generally fuscous; the lines starting from black costal spots; the inner and outer double, blackish, the inner minutely waved, the outer dentate; subterminal line pale, waved, preceded by a grey shade with dentate rufous marks in it; stigmata small, fuscous, the orbicular rounded, the reniform a narrow lunule, with two white dots on its inner edge and three on outer; hindwing white, the veins and termen dark grey; — in laciniosa Donz. the subterminal line consists of a row of 3 yellowish spots each extended to termen; — the form leucoptera Thnbg. , from Scandinavia, Finland, and the Ural Mts., has fuscous suffusion over the head, thorax, and forewing, the hindwing remaining white
  • Scopula luridata
Scopula luridata is a moth of the Geometridae family. It is found in southern Europe, Asia Minor, China, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Somalia, Yemen, Oman and Japan
  • Stenodacma pyrrhodes
Stenodacma pyrrhodes is a moth of the Pterophoridae family. It has a wide range and has been recorded fromPakistan,  Australia, India, Japan, South Africa, China, Nepal, , Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand and Korea.

The wingspan is 10–11 millimetres (0.39–0.43 in).


Insects are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are among the most diverse groups of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms

The word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or literally "cut into",

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

► Butterflies of Pakistan‎ 

► Moths of Pakistan‎ 


  • Byasa polyeuctes
  • Catopsilia pomona
  • Danaus chrysippus
  • Danaus genutia
  • Delias descombesi

  • Euploea core
  • Eurema hecabe
  • Graphium cloanthus
  • Graphium doson
  • Hydrophilus caschmirensis
  • Hypermnestra helios
  • Ixias pyrene
  • Papilio agestor
  • Papilio alexanor
  • Papilio arcturus
  • Papilio clytia
  • Papilio demoleus
  • Papilio machaon
  • Papilio polyctor
  • Papilio polytes
  • Parnassius acco
  • Parnassius actius
  • Parnassius boëdromius
  • Parnassius charltonius
  • Parnassius delphius
  • Parnassius epaphus
  • Parnassius hardwickii
  • Parnassius inopinatus
  • Parnassius jacquemontii
  • Parnassius loxias
  • Parnassius simo
  • Parnassius staudingeri
  • Parnassius stoliczkanus
  • Phalanta phalantha
  • Pieris brassicae
  • Pieris deota
  • Pontia daplidice
  • Saga pedo
  • Scarce swallowtail
  • Tarucus callinara
  • Tirumala limniace
  • Trioza fletcheri
  • Xylocopa valga
  • Xylocopa violacea

Friday, February 28, 2014

Snakes of Pakistan

Suborder Serpentes
There are 67 species of serpentes (snakes) found in Pakistan.    
Family Boidae (boas) 

There are 3 species found in Pakistan.
1.     Eryx johnii johnii (Indian Sand Boa or Red Sand Boa)
2.     Eryx tataricus speciosus (Tartar Sand Boa)
3.      Gongylophis conicus or Eryx conicus (Rough-scaled Sand Boa

Family Colubridae (colubrids)
There are 32 species found in Pakistan.
1.     Amphiesma platyceps
2.     Amphiesma sielboldii
3.     Amphiesma stolata stolata
4.     Boiga trigonata
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Boiga t. melanocephala
      b.     Boiga t. trigonata

5.     Coluber fasciolatus
6.     Coluber karelini
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Coluber k. karelini
b.     Coluber k. mintonorum

7.     Coluber ravergeiri ravergeiri
8.     Coluber rhodorachis
There are 3 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Coluber r. kashmirensis
b.     Coluber r. ladacensis
c.      Coluber r. rhodorachis

9.     Coluber ventromaculatus
There are 3 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Coluber v. bengalensis
b.     Coluber v. indusai
c.      Coluber v. ventromaculatus

10.                        Enhydris pakistanica
11.                        Lycodon aulicus aulicus
12.                        Lycodon striatus
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Lycodon s. bicolor
b.     Lycodon s. striatus
13.                        Lycodon travancoricus
14.                        Lytorhynchus maynardi
15.                        Lytorhynchus paradoxus
16.                        Lytorhynchus ridgewayi
17.                        Natrix tessellata tessellate
18.                        Oligodon arnensis
19.                        Oligodon taeniolatus
20.                        Psammophis condanarus condanarus
21.                        Psammophis leithii
22.                        Psammophis lineolatus
23.                        Psammophis schokari
24.                        Pseudocyclophis persica
25.                        Ptyas mucosus
26.                        Sibynophis sagittarius
27.                        Spalerosophis arenarius
28.                        Spalerosophis diadema
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Spalerosophis d. diadema
b.     Spalerosophis d. schirazianus
29.                        Telescopus rhinopoma
30.                        Xenochrophis cerasogaster
31.                        Xenochrophis piscator piscator
32.                        Xenochrophis sanctijohannis

Family Elapidae (kraits and cobras)
There are 4 species found in Pakistan.
1.     Bungarus caeruleus (Common Krait)
2.     Bungarus sindanus (Sind Krait)
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Bungarus s. razai (Northern Punjab Krait)
b.     Bungarus s. sindanus (Sind Krait)

3.     Naja naja (Indian Cobra or Spectacled Cobra)
4.     Naja oxiana (Central Asian Cobra or Oxus Cobra)

Family Hydrophiidae  (Sea Snakes)
There are 14 species found in Pakistan
1.     Astrotia stokesii (Stokes' Sea Snake)
2.     Enhydrina schistosa (Beaked Sea Snake, Hook-nosed Sea Snake, Common Sea Snake or Valakadyn Sea Snake)
3.     Hydrophis caerulescens (Dwarf Seasnake or Many-toothed Sea Snake)
4.     Hydrophis cyanocinctus (Annulated Sea Snake or Blue-banded Sea Snake)
5.     Hydrophis fasciatus (Striped Sea Snake)
6.     Hydrophis lapemoides (Persian Gulf Sea Snake)
7.     Hydrophis mamillaris (Bombay Sea Snake)
8.     Hydrophis ornatus (Ornate Reef Seasnake)
9.     Hydrophis spiralis (Yellow Sea Snake)
10.                        Lapemis curtus (Shaw's Sea Snake)
11.                        Microcephalophis cantoris (Cantor's Small-headed Sea Snake)
12.                        Microcephalophis gracilis (Graceful Small-headed Sea Snake or Slender Sea Snake)
13.                        Pelamis platurus (Yellow-bellied Sea Snake or Pelagic Sea     Snake)
14.                        Praescutata viperina (Viperine Sea Snake)

    Family Leptotyphlopidae (Thread Snakes)

        There are 2 species found in pakistan
1.     Leptotyphlops blanfordii (Blanford's Worm Snake or Sind Thread Snake)
2.     Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus (Long-nosed Worm Snake or Beaked Thread Snake)

Family Pythonidae (Pythons)
There is 1 species found in Pakistan
1.     Python molurus molurus (Indian Python, Black-tailed Python or Sind Python)

Family Typhlopidae   (Blind Snakes)
There are 5 species found in Pakistan
1.     Ramphotyphlops braminus (Brahminy Blind Snake)
2.     Typhlops ahsanai (Ahsan's Blind Snake)
3.     Typhlops porrectus or Typhlops ductuliformes (Slender Worm Snake)
4.     Typhlops madgemintonai
There are 2 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Typhlops m. madgemintonai (Madge's Blind Snake)
               b  Typhlops m. shermanai (Sherman's Blind Snake)

Family Viperidae (Vipers and Pit Vipers)
There are 7 species found in Pakistan
1.     Daboia russelii russelii (Daboia or Russell's Viper)

2.     Echis carinatus (Indian Saw-scaled Viper)

There are 3 subspecies found in Pakistan.
a.     Echis c. astolae (Astola Saw-scaled Viper)
b.     Echis c. multisquamatus (Multiscale Saw-scaled Viper)

c.      Echis c. sochureki (Sochurek's Saw-scaled Viper)

3.     Echis pyramidum (Northeast African Carpet Viper, Egyptian Saw-scaled Viper)
4.     Eristicophis macmahonii (McMahon's Viper, Asian Sand Viper, Leaf-nosed Viper)

5.     Gloydius himalayanus (Himalayan Pit Viper)
6.     Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (West-Asian Blunt-nosed Viper, Levant Blunt-nosed Viper)

7.     Pseudocerastes persicus persicus (Persian Horned Viper, False Horned Viper)