Wednesday, April 25, 2012

EAGLES OF PAKISTAN



Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey belong to the bird family Accipitridae. They have heavy head and beak. Eagles have very large hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong muscular legs, and powerful talons. The beak is typically heavier than most other birds of prey. They have long and even broad wings and have direct, faster flight.They also have extremely keen eyesight. which enables them to spot prey from a very long distance.

The female of all species of eagle known are larger than the male.

 Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. The dominant chick tends to be the female, as they are bigger than the male.

Eagles normally build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs.


Black Eagle




The Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis) is a bird of prey and is the only member of the genus Ictinaetus. 


They are easily identified by their widely splayed and long primary "fingers", the characteristic silhouette, slow flight and yellow ceres and legs that contrast with their dark feathers.this bird is easily spotted by its jet black colour, large size.


The Black Eagle is a large raptor at about 70–80 cm in length. Adults have all-black plumage, with a yellow bill base (cere) and feet. The wings are long and pinched in at the innermost primaries giving a distinctive shape. The tail shows faint barring and upper tail covers paler. When perched the wing tips reach till or exceed the tail tip. The wings are held in a shallow V in flight. Sexes are similar, but young birds have a buff head, underparts and underwing coverts. 


The Black Eagle soar over forests in the hilly regions of tropical Asia and hunt mammals and birds, particularly at their nests. They eats mammals, birds and eggs. It is a prolific nest-predator and is known for its slow flight just over the canopy.The curved claws and wide gape allow it to pick up eggs of birds from nests.


 Black Eagle lay one or two white eggs. They lay eggs during the nesting season between January and April. The nest site may be reused year after year.

Bonelli's Eagle




The Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) is a large bird of prey. This is a small to medium - sized eagle at 55–65 cm in length. The upperparts are dark brown, and the underside is white with dark streaks. The wings are relatively short and rounded. The long tail is grey on top and white below and has a single broad black terminal band. The feet and eyes are yellow.Immature birds have deep buff underparts and underwing coverts, and have fine barring on the tail without the terminal band.



The Bonelli's Eagle takes a wide range of live prey, all taken alive. It usually hunts from cover by a quick dash from inside a tree, but it will also catch prey by quartering hill slopes like other eagles, or make a stoop from a soaring position. Most prey is taken on the ground.This eagle takes large prey items, usually mammals or birds. 



It is usually a resident breeder which lays 1-3 eggs in a tree or crag nest. The Bonelli's Eagle is usually silent except in display and near the nest.



The Bonelli's Eagle is a species of wooded, often hilly, country with some open areas. 

Booted Eagle



The Booted Eagle (Aquila pennata) is a medium-sized bird of prey. It is about 48 centimetres (19 in) in length and has a wingspan of 120 centimetres (47 in). The Booted is a small eagle, comparable to the Common Buzzard in size though more eagle-like in shape. Males grow to about 700 grams (1.5 lbs) in weight, with females close to 1 kilogram (over 2 lb). There are two relatively distinct plumage forms. Pale birds are mainly light grey with a darker head and flight feathers. The other form has mid-brown plumage with dark grey flight feathers.



 It hunts small mammals, reptiles and birds up to 5 times its own weight.


This eagle lays 1-2 eggs in a tree or crag nest.



 This is a species of wooded, often hilly countryside with some open areas.

Eastern Imperial Eagle



The Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey. The Eastern Imperial Eagle has length of 72–84 cm (28–33 in), a wingspan of 1.8–2.16 m (5.9–7.1 ft) and a weight of 2.45–4.55 kilograms (5.4–10.0 lb). 


 Eastern Imperial Eagle lays two to three eggs.The chicks hatch after about 43 days and leave the nest after 60–77 days. 
  

The Eastern Imperial Eagle feeds mainly a variety of other birds and mammals


The Imperial Eagle preferred habitat is open country with small woods. They do not generally live in mountains, large forests or treeless steppes. Eastern Imperial Eagles generally prefer to construct a nest in a tree which is not surrounded by other trees, so that the nest is visible from a considerable distance, and so that the occupants may observe the surroundings unobstructed. Tree branches are taken in order to build the nest, which is upholstered with grass and feathers. Very rarely it nests on cliffs or the ground.


Golden Eagle




The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey The Golden Eagle is one of the largest eagles in the genus Aquila, which are distributed almost worldwide. 


The Golden Eagle is a large, dark brown raptor with lighter golden-brown plumage on their heads and necks. It has broad wings. The sexes are similar in plumage but are considerably dimorphic in size, with females rather larger than males. Adults are primarily brown, with gold on the back of the crown and nape, and some grey on the wings and tail. Tarsal feathers range from white to dark brown. In addition, some birds have white "epaulettes" on the upper part of each scapular feather tract. The bill is dark at the tip, fading to a lighter horn color, with a yellow cere.


Juveniles have a darker, unfaded color, white patches in the remiges which may be divided by darker feathers, and a large amount of white on the tail with a black terminal band.



Its size is variable: it ranges from 66 to 100 cm (26 to 39 in) in length and it has a typical wingspan of 1.8 to 2.34 m (5.9 to 7.7 ft). In the largest race (A. c. daphanea) males and females weigh 4.05 kg (8.9 lb) and 6.35 kg (14.0 lb). In the smallest subspecies (A. c. japonensis), the sexes weigh, respectively, 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) and 3.25 kg (7.2 lb).The maximum size of this species upper weight limit for a large female is around 6.8 kg (15 lb) and large races are the heaviest representatives of the Aquila genus. 


Golden Eagles maintain territories that may be as large as 155 square kilometres (60 sq mi). 

They are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Females lay from one to four eggs, and both parents incubate them for 40 to 45 days. Typically, one or two young survive to fledge in about three months.


Golden Eagles use their agility and speed combined with extremely powerful talons to snatch up prey including rabbits, marmots, ground squirrels, and large mammals such as foxes, wild and domestic cats, mountain goats, ibex, and young deer. They have even been known to attack and kill fully grown roe deer.


Golden Eagles nest in high places including cliffs, trees, or human structures such as telephone poles. They build huge nests to which they may return for several breeding years. 

Greater Spotted Eagle



The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) is a large bird of prey. It is 59–71 cm (23–28 in) in length and has a wingspan of 157–179 cm (62–70 in) and a typical body mass of 1.6–2.5 kg (3.5–5.5 lb), with an occasional big female weighing up to 3.2 kg (7.1 lb). Head and wing coverts are very dark brown and contrast with the generally medium brown plumage; the Lesser Spotted Eagle has a paler head and wing coverts. The head is small for an eagle. There is often a less obvious white patch on the upperwings, but a light crescent on the primary remiges is a good field mark. The white V mark on the rump is less clear-cut in adults than in the Lesser Spotted Eagle

The juvenile has white spots all over its wings and lacks a lighter nape patch.


This eagle lays 1-3 eggs in a tree nest until the end of March.

Generally territorial, juveniles spend some time with their parents after fledging, until they reach sexual maturity and seek out a territory and a mate of their own. In winter quarters, the species is more social. Small flocks of up to ten birds or so, of varying age, can be seen to patrol the land together. They also associate with other.



 Greater Spotted Eagle shares part of its range. This is a species of fairly wooded country, which hunts small mammals and similar, mainly terrestrial prey. 

Indian Spotted Eagle







The Indian Spotted Eagle (Aquila hastata) is a large South Asian bird of prey. 



The Indian Spotted Eagle is about 60 cm in length and has a wingspan of 150 cm. It is broad-headed, with the widest mouth of all spotted eagles. This species has a lighter coloration overall compared to its relatives, with a darker iris that makes the eyes appear darker than the plumage.


Adults can be told apart from the Greater Spotted Eagle by its lighter color, darker eyes. After about three or four months the young birds are glossy brown with the tips of the head and neck feathers being creamy and giving a spotted appearance. The upper tail coverts are light brown with white giving a barred appearance.


 The median coverts have large creamy spots. After about eighteen months the bird moults and becomes a darker shade and has less spots. 





Lesser Spotted Eagle




The Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.

This is a medium-sized eagle, about 60 cm in length and with a wingspan of 150 cm. Its head and wing coverts are pale brown and contrast with the generally dark plumage. The head and bill are small for an eagle. There is usually a white patch on the upperwings, and even adults retain a clear-marked white V on the rump; the wing markings are absent and the white V is not well-defined in the Greater Spotted Eagle.


The juvenile has less contrast in the wings, but the remiges bear prominent white spots. It differs from Greater Spotted Eagle juveniles by a lack of wing covert spotting and the presence of a cream-colored neck patch.


 This is a very wary species of open or lightly wooded country, in which it hunts small mammals and similar terrestrial prey. 


This eagle lays 1–3 white buff-spotted eggs in a tree nest. As usual for eagles, only in breeding seasons with very abundant prey does more than one young fledge however: the female starts incubating when the first egg has been laid, and thus the first young to hatch usually outgrows its clutchmate(s) and will kill and even eat them sooner or later.


Mountain Hawk-Eagle





The Mountain Hawk-Eagle is a bird of prey.The Mountain Hawk-Eagle is a medium-large raptor at 69–84 cm (27–33 in) in length and a wingspan of 134–175 cm (53–69 in). 



The typical adult has brown upperparts and pale underparts, with barring on the undersides of the flight feathers and tail. The breast and belly and underwing coverts are heavily streaked. The wings are broad with a curved trailing edge, and are held in a shallow V in flight. Sexes are similar, but young birds are often whiter-headed.


Mountain Hawk-Eagles eat small mammals, birds and reptiles.


It is a bird of mountain woodland, which builds a stick nest in a tree and lays usually a single egg. 





Pallas's Fish Eagle








Pallas's Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) also known as Pallas's Sea Eagle or Band-Tailed Fish Eagle, is a large, brownish sea-eagle. It has a light brown hood over a white face. The wings are dark brown and the back rufous, darker underneath. The tail is black with a wide, distinctive white stripe. Underwings have a white band. Juveniles are overall darker with no band on the tail.




Pallas's Fish Eagle measures 72–84 cm (28–33 in) in length with a wingspan of 180–215 cm (71–85 in). Females at 2.1-3.7 kg (4.6-8.2 lbs), are slightly larger than males, at 2-3.3 kg (4.4-7.3 lbs).




Its diet consists primarily of large freshwater fish. 



Pallas's Fish Eagle is rare and isolated throughout its territory and may not breed in large areas of it



Short-toed Snake Eagle



The Short-toed Snake Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) also known as Short-toed Eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae 





Short-toed Snake Eagle 
are 63–68 cm (2 ft 1 in–2 ft 3 in) long with a 185–195 cm (6 ft 1 in–6 ft 5 in) wingspan and weigh 1.7–1.9 kg (3.7–4.2 lb). 





They can be recognised in the field by their predominantly white underside, the upper parts being greyish brown. The chin, throat and upper breast are a pale, earthy brown. The tail has 3 or 4 bars. Additional indications are an owl-like rounded head, brightly yellow eyes and lightly barred under wing.






The Short-toed Snake Eagle is an accomplished flyer and spends more time on the wing than do most members of its genus. It favours soaring over hill slopes and hilltops on updraughts, and it does much of its hunting from this position at heights of up to 500 meters (550 yards). When quartering open country it frequently hovers when it soars it does so on flattish wings.


Steppe Eagle




The Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) is a bird of prey. This is a large eagle with brown upperparts and blackish flight feathers and tail. This species is larger and darker and it has a pale throat which is lacking in that species. 
Immature birds are less contrasted than adults, but both show a range of variation in plumage colour. 




The Steppe Eagle is about 62–81 cm (24–32 in) in length and has a wingspan of 1.65–2.15 m (5.4–7.1 ft). Females, weighing 2.3–4.9 kg (5–10.8 lbs), are slightly larger than males, at 2–3.5 kg (4.4–7.7 lbs).




Steppe Eagle lays 1–3 eggs in a stick nest in a tree.Throughout its range it favours open dry habitats, such as desert, semi-desert, steppes, or savannah.



The Steppe Eagle's diet is largely fresh carrion of all kinds, but it will kill rodents and other small mammals up to the size of a hare, and birds up to the size of partridges. It will also steal food from other raptors. Steppe Eagle has a crop in its throat allowing it to store food for several hours before being moved to the stomach.



Tawny Eagle




The Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) is a large bird of prey. This is a large eagle.  It has tawny upperparts and blackish flight feathers and tail. The lower back is very pale. Immature birds are less contrasted than adults, but both show a range of variation in plumage colour.



Tawny Eagle is 60–75 cm (24–30 in) in length and has a wingspan of 159–190 cm (63–75 in). Weight can range from 1.6 to 3 kg (3.5 to 6.6 lb). 





The Tawny Eagle's diet is largely fresh carrion of all kinds, but it will kill small mammals up to the size of a rabbit, reptiles and birds up to the size of guineafowl. It will also steal food from other raptors.Throughout its range it favours open dry habitats, such as desert, semi-desert, steppes, or savannah, plains.





White-bellied Sea Eagle





The White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster), also known as the White-breasted Sea Eagle, is a large diurnal bird of prey.





White-bellied Sea Eagle has a white head, breast, under-wing coverts and tail. The White-bellied Sea Eagle has a white head, rump and underparts, and dark or slate-grey back and wingsThe upper parts are grey and the black under-wing flight feathers contrast with the white coverts. The cere is also lead greyThe legs and feet are yellow or grey, with long black talons The legs are not feathered. The tail is short and wedge-shaped.



Female is slightly larger than the male, and can measure up to 90 cm (36 in) long with a wingspan of up to 2.2 m (7 ft), and weigh 4.5 kg (10 lb). Immature birds have brown plumage, which is gradually replaced by white until the age of five or six years.



The wings are modified when gliding so that they rise from the body at an angle, but are closer to horizontal further along the wingspan. In silhouette, the comparatively long neck, head and beak stick out from the front almost as far as the tail does behind. For active flight, the White-bellied Sea Eagle alternates strong deep wing-beats with short periods of gliding.


The White-bellied Sea Eagle is territorial. The species is monogamous, with pairs remaining together until one bird dies, after which the surviving bird quickly seeks a new mate. . They are most commonly encountered singly or in pairs.  Normally a clutch of two dull, white, oval eggs are laid. Measuring 73 x 55 mm, they are incubated over six weeks before hatching. The young are semi-altricial, and covered in white down when they emerge from the egg. Initially, the male brings food and the female feeds the chicks, but both parents feed the chicks as they grow larger. 


White-bellied Sea Eagle breeds and hunts near water, and fish form around half of its diet.It is an opportunistic carnivore and consumes a wide variety of animal prey, including carrion. It often catches a fish by flying low over the water and grasping it in its talons.  It hunts mainly aquatic animals, such as fish, turtles and sea snakes, but it takes birds and mammals as well.  They also feed on carrion such as dead sheep, birds and fish found along the waterline, as well as raiding fishing nets and following cane harvesters.


The White-bellied Sea Eagle may also dive at a 45 degree angle from its perch and briefly submerge to catch fish near the water surface While hunting over water on sunny days, it often flies directly into the sun or at right angles to it, seemingly to avoid casting shadows over the water and hence alerting potential 



White-bellied Sea Eagles feed alone, in pairs, or in family groups. The White-bellied Sea Eagle skins the victim as it eats it. It is exceptionally efficient at digesting its food, and disgorges only tiny pellets of fragmented bone, fur and feathers.



The White-bellied Sea Eagle usually chooses tall trees or man-made pylons to nest in Cliffs are also suitable nesting sites, and on islands nests are sometimes built directly on the ground. A breeding pair, with the male being more active, spends three to six weeks building or renovating the nest before laying eggs The lifespan is thought to be around 30 years







White-tailed Eagle






The White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla also called the Sea Eaglei s a large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae The White-tailed Eagle is sometimes considered the fourth largest eagle in the world



White-tailed Eagle is a very large bird. It measures 69–95 cm (27–37 in) in length with a 1.82–2.44 m (6.0–8.0 ft) wingspan. Females, typically weighing 4–6.9 kg (8.8–15 lb), are slightly larger than males, which weigh 3.1–5.4 kg (6.8–12 lb).


 It has broad "barn door" wings, a large head and a large thick beak. The adult is mainly brown except for the paler head and neck, blackish flight feathers, distinctive white tail, and yellow bill and legs. In juvenile birds the tail and bill are darker, with the tail becoming white with a dark terminal band in sub-adults



Mated pairs produce one to three eggs per year. The eggs are laid two to five days apart in March or April and are incubated for 38 days by both parents. Once hatched, chicks are quite tolerant of one another, although the first hatched is often larger and dominant at feeding times. The female does most of the brooding and direct feeding, with the male taking over now and then. Young are able to feed themselves from five to six weeks and they fledge at eleven to twelve weeks, remaining in the vicinity of the nest, dependent on their parents for a further six to ten weeks.  If left in the nest, they are often killed by the first-hatched sooner or later, as in most large eagles





White-tailed Eagles pair for life, though if one dies replacement can occur quickly. A bond is formed when a permanent home range is chosen. The nest is a huge edifice of sticks in a tree or on a coastal cliff.  White-tailed Eagle prefers the coast and the sea.


 The White-tailed Eagle's diet is varied, including fish, birds, carrion, and, occasionally, mammals. .White-tailed Eagle can be a powerful hunter as well. White-tailed Eagle has no natural predators and is thus considered an apex predator. White-tailed Eagle live  21 years on average.





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